Investigation of Steel Frames Equipped with Steel Eccentric Braces and Steel-Concrete Buckling-Restrained Braces Having Moment Link

Alireza Bahrami1, 2, *, Mahmood Heidari2
1 Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, 801 76 Gävle, Sweden
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

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© 2021 Bahrami and Heidari.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, 801 76 Gävle, Sweden; E-mail:



Different bracing systems of steel Eccentric Braces (EBs) and steel-concrete Buckling-Restrained Braces (BRBs) can be used in steel frames in order to make the frames stronger in resisting lateral loads. These steel frames with EBs or BRBs are generally called Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs) or Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames (BRBFs), respectively.


This study aims to investigate steel frames with bracing systems of steel EBs and steel-concrete BRBs having moment link.


The EBFs and BRBFs are nonlinearly analysed employing the finite element software ABAQUS. Experimental tests of the EBF and BRB are utilised for the validation of their modelling. The modelling is validated by comparing the modelling results with experimental tests results. Then, an EBF and a BRBF are designed having moment link. The extreme earthquake records of Tabas, Chi-Chi, and Northridge are selected for the dynamic analyses of the EBF and BRBF. The validated modelling method is applied to analyse the designed EBF and BRBF under the selected earthquake records.


The achieved results from the analyses are lateral displacements, base shears, and energy dissipations of the EBF and BRBF and moment link rotations. These results are compared and discussed.


It is concluded that the hierarchy of the lateral displacements of the analysed EBF and BRBF, having moment link, is related to the Tabas, Chi-Chi, and Northridge records because the lateral displacements of the frames are directly proportional to the peak ground accelerations of the records, and there is the same hierarchy for the records in terms of their peak ground accelerations. Lower lateral displacements are witnessed for the BRBF than the EBF subjected to the Tabas and Chi-Chi records. However, larger lateral displacement is observed for the BRBF than the EBF under the Northridge record. The same procedure as the lateral displacements is also revealed for the effectiveness of the BRBF with regard to its link rotations compared with the EBF. Moreover, the BRBF improves the base shear capacities and energy dissipations of the frame compared with the EBF. Consequently, the BRBF is generally demonstrated to be superior to the EBF from the structural performance point of view. Thus, the BRBF can be used more efficiently in structures subjected to large lateral loads compared with the EBF.

Keywords: Steel, Concrete, Eccentrically braced frame, Buckling-restrained brace, Nonlinear analysis, Moment link.